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The Significant of Ketogenic and Low Carb Diet in the Management of T2DM.

An Introduction to a literature review study by IROAGANACHI.V.C., 2022.

Earlier before the invention of insulin in 1921 by Sir Frederic G Banting, the development of low carbohydrate and ketogenic diets have emerged to address certain health conditions such as epilepsy, obesity and diabetes. This old dietary methods of diabetes management revealed interesting evidence towards the dietary treatment of type two diabetes with ketogenic and low carb diet.

Ketogenic diet as the name implies are foods rich in fats, moderate protein and less carbohydrate, they were administered to reduce carbohydrate intake, there by encouraging the liver to convert food fats and body fats for mainstream energy. While low carbohydrate diets, are less carbohydrate food, with high protein and moderate fat. The overall intention of these diets was to encourage ketogenesis. The initial diet(keto diets) targets carbohydrate calorie in diets to about 10% while the latter(low carb) aim carbohydrate calories to about 20 to 40% depending on the practitioners evaluations and health target for individual dietary treatment for type two diabetes. Some studies identified hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance as an independent risk factors for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and hypertension, which are highly associated with coronary artery calcification and stroke.

The history of ketogenic and low carbohydrate diet in the treatment of health conditions such as T2DM and obesity can be referred back to the time of Dr. Frederick Madison Allen and Dr. Elliot Joslin. The duo introduced ketogenic diet during their investigation on some patients well-being. They utilized dietary calorie contents which were high in fats 70%, moderate protein 18% and carbohydrate 10% respectively. Foods like meat,poultry ,egg, fish were encouraged, also foods with less carbohydrates such as lettuce, cucumbers, mushrooms, asparagus, tomatoes, okra, cauliflower, sprouts were introduced as well. These diet helped limit the body from extra carbohydrate calorie intake which in turn reduces blood plasma glucose and the metabolic complications of diabetes.

However patients with several co morbidities like high cholesterol, obesity and many others may have to engage in appropriate portions of diets unlike people without health complications.

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